Type Transformations Workshop (9 exercises)

Set a Default Type Value in a Type Helper

The solution to this challenge is simple, but gives us good insight into some new syntax.

Updating CreateDataShape to have TError = undefined tells TypeScript that the second argument doesn't need to be passed in:

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[0:00] The solution here is super simple and gives us a nice insight into some new syntax here. We can say TError = undefined. Now, what this does is it basically says you don't need to pass that second element then.

[0:15] If we add this CreateDataShape, let's say we add this to an example here, then what we're going to get is we're going to get data: string; and error: undefined;. If we change this to a number, then of course we get data: number; and error: undefined;.

[0:31] Finally, we can pass anything to this error, actually. If we just parse an error inside here, then we get data: number; and error: Error. We can also combine this with the extends thing if we want to. We can say TError extends an error clause.

[0:46] In fact, there, what it's going to do it's going to say Type 'undefined' does not satisfy the constraint 'Error'. We can't provide a default that doesn't match our constraint. We could say error or undefined if we want to. There we start getting a little bit messy, right?

[1:00] We can see that we've got TError extends Error or undefined = undefined. You'll find this in some type definitions, is that it just gets quite clumped together and quite grouped up. There's not a huge perfect way to avoid this, really.

[1:14] We could go Type this = type MaybeError = Error undefined. Then TError extends MaybeError. That's a way to maybe clean it up nicely. That gives you a sense of what's possible here. Everything in this can have a default. We can't specify just the same with functions if we say TThird here, for instance.

[1:32] Then this is impossible because required type parameters may not follow optional type parameters just like in normal functions. This is a really, really useful bit of syntax. It lets us just provide sensible defaults if we don't want to be parsing these, and lets us be more expressive with our type helpers.